Fair Value of Financial Instruments
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2019
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|Fair Value of Financial Instruments||
3. Fair value of financial instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses. The carrying values of its financial instruments approximate fair value based on their short-term nature.
Fair value accounting
ASC 820 — Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures creates a single definition of fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in U.S. GAAP and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC 820 emphasizes that fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement, and states that a fair value measurement is to estimate the price at which an orderly transaction to sell an asset or to transfer the liability would take place between market participants at the measurement date under current market conditions. Assets and liabilities adjusted to fair value in the balance sheet are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair value. Level inputs, as defined by ASC 820, are as follows:
The Company obtained the fair value of its available-for-sale investments, which are not in active markets, from a third-party professional pricing service using quoted market prices for identical or comparable instruments, rather than direct observations of quoted prices in active markets. The Company's professional pricing service gathers observable inputs for all of its fixed income securities from a variety of industry data providers (e.g., large custodial institutions) and other third-party sources. Once the observable inputs are gathered, all data points are considered, and the fair value is determined. The Company validates the quoted market prices provided by its primary pricing service by comparing their assessment of the fair values against the fair values provided by its investment managers. The Company's investment managers use similar techniques to its professional pricing service to derive pricing as described above. As all significant inputs were observable, derived from observable information in the marketplace or supported by observable levels at which transactions are executed in the marketplace, the Company has classified its marketable securities within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.
The following table summarizes fair value measurements by level for the assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis for cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities:
The following table summarizes the estimated fair value of the Company’s investments in marketable securities, classified by the contractual maturity date of the securities:
Derivative instruments and hedging activities
The Company transacts business in foreign currencies and has international sales and expenses denominated in foreign currencies, subjecting the Company to foreign currency risk. The Company has entered into foreign currency forward contracts, generally with maturities of twelve months or less, to reduce the volatility of cash flows primarily related to forecasted revenue denominated in certain foreign currencies. These contracts allow the Company to sell Euros in exchange for U.S. dollars at specified contract rates. Forward contracts are used to hedge forecasted sales over specific months. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts designed as cash flow hedges are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) within stockholders’ equity and are recognized in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income during the period which approximates the time the corresponding sales occur. The Company may also enter into foreign exchange contracts that are not designated as hedging instruments for financial accounting purposes. These contracts are generally entered into to offset the gains and losses on certain asset and liability balances until the expected time of repayment. Accordingly, any gains or losses resulting from changes in the fair value of the non-designated contracts are reported in other expense, net in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income. The gains and losses on these contracts generally offset the gains and losses associated with the underlying foreign currency-denominated balances, which are also reported in other income (expense), net.
The Company records the assets or liabilities associated with derivative instruments and hedging activities at fair value based on Level 2 inputs in other current assets or other current liabilities, respectively, in the consolidated balance sheet. The Company had a related receivable of $862 and a receivable of $472 as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively. The Company classifies the foreign currency derivative instruments within Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy as the valuation inputs are based on quoted prices and market observable data of whether it is designated and qualifies for hedge accounting.
The Company documents the hedging relationship and its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge, the hedging instrument, the hedged transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged, how the hedging instrument’s effectiveness in offsetting the hedged risk will be assessed prospectively and retrospectively, and a description of the method used to measure ineffectiveness. The Company assesses hedge effectiveness and ineffectiveness at a minimum quarterly but may assess it monthly. For derivative instruments that are designed and qualify as part of a cash flow hedging relationship, the effective portion of the gain or loss on the derivative is reported in other comprehensive income (loss) and reclassified into earnings in the same periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. Gains and losses on the derivative representing either hedge ineffectiveness or hedge components excluded from the assessment of effectiveness are recognized in current period earnings.
The Company will discontinue hedge accounting prospectively when it determines that the derivative is no longer effective in offsetting cash flows attributable to the hedge risk. The cash flow hedge is de-designated because a forecasted transaction is not probable of occurring, or management determines to remove the designation of the cash flow hedge. In all situations in which hedge accounting is discontinued and the derivative remains outstanding, the Company continues to carry the derivative at its fair value on the balance sheet and recognizes any subsequent changes in the fair value in earnings. When it is probable that a forecasted transaction will not occur, the Company will discontinue hedge accounting and recognize immediately in earnings gains and losses that were accumulated in other comprehensive income (loss) related to the hedging relationship.
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
The components of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) were as follows:
Comprehensive income (loss) is the total net earnings and all other non-owner changes in equity. Except for net income and unrealized gains and losses on cash flow hedges, the Company does not have any transactions or other economic events that qualify as comprehensive income (loss).
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef