Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2015
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of significant accounting policies||
2. Summary of significant accounting policies
The Company generates revenue primarily from sales and rentals of its products. The Company’s products consist of its proprietary line of oxygen concentrators and related accessories. Other revenue, which is included in sales revenue on the Statements of Operations, comes from service contracts, extended warranty contracts and freight revenue for product shipments.
Revenue from product sales is recognized when all of the following criteria are met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; (3) the price to the customer is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. Revenue from product sales is generally recognized upon shipment of the product. Provisions for estimated returns and discounts are made at the time revenue is recognized. Provisions for standard warranty obligations, which are included in cost of sales revenue on the Statements of Operations, are also provided for at the time revenue is recognized.
Revenue from the sale of the Company’s services is recognized when no significant obligations remain undelivered and collection of the receivables is reasonably assured. The Company offers extended service contracts on its Inogen One concentrator line for periods ranging from 12 to 24 months after the end of the standard warranty period. Revenue from these extended service contracts is recognized in income on a straight-line basis over the contract period.
Accruals for estimated standard warranty expenses are made at the time that the associated revenue is recognized. The provisions for estimated returns, discounts and warranty obligations are made based on known claims and discount commitments and estimates of additional returns and warranty obligations based on historical data and future expectations. The Company’s accrued warranty liability was $1,606 and $1,115 for future warranty costs as of June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively.
The Company also offers a lifetime warranty for direct-to-consumer sales. For a fixed price, the Company agrees to provide a fully functional oxygen concentrator for the remaining life of the patient. Lifetime warranties are only offered to patients upon the initial sale of oxygen equipment by the Company and are non-transferable. Product sales with lifetime warranties are considered to be multiple element arrangements within the scope of the Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 605-25—Revenue Recognition-Multiple-Element Arrangements.
There are two deliverables when a product that includes a lifetime warranty is sold. The first deliverable is the oxygen concentrator equipment which comes with a standard warranty of three years. The second deliverable is the lifetime warranty that provides for a functional oxygen concentrator for the remaining lifetime of the patient. These two deliverables qualify as separate units of accounting.
The revenue is allocated to the two deliverables on a relative selling price method. The Company has vendor-specific objective evidence of selling price for the equipment. To determine the selling price of the lifetime warranty, the Company uses its best estimate of the selling price for that deliverable as the lifetime warranty is neither separately priced nor is the selling price available through third-party evidence. To calculate the selling price associated with the lifetime warranties, management considered the profit margins of the overall business, the average estimated cost of lifetime warranties and the price of extended warranties. A significant estimate used to calculate the price and expense of lifetime warranties is the life expectancy of patients. Based on clinical studies, the Company estimates that 60% of patients will succumb to their disease within three years. Given the approximate mortality rate of 20% per year, the Company estimates on average all patients will succumb to their disease within five years. The Company has taken into consideration that when patients decide to buy an Inogen portable oxygen concentrator with a lifetime warranty, they typically have already been on oxygen for a period of time, which can have a large impact on their life expectancy from the time the Company’s product is deployed.
After applying the relative selling price method, revenue from equipment sales is recognized when all other revenue recognition criteria for product sales are met. Lifetime warranty revenue is recognized using the straight-line method during the fourth and fifth year after the delivery of the equipment which is the estimated usage period of the contract based on the average patient life expectancy.
Shipping and handling costs for sold products and rental assets shipped to the Company’s customers are included on the Statements of Operations as part of cost of sales revenue and cost of rental revenue, respectively.
Revenue from the sales of used rental equipment is recognized upon shipment and when collectability is reasonably assured and other revenue recognition criteria are met. When a rental unit is sold, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from their respective accounts, and any gains or losses are included in cost of sales revenue on the Statements of Operations.
The Company recognizes equipment rental revenue over the non-cancelable lease term, which is one month, less estimated adjustments, in accordance with ASC 840—Leases. The Company has separate contracts with each patient that are not subject to a master lease agreement with any payor. The Company evaluates the individual lease contracts at lease inception and the start of each monthly renewal period to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the bargain renewal option associated with the potential capped free rental period would be exercised. Historically, the exercise of such bargain renewal option is not reasonably assured at lease inception and most subsequent monthly lease renewal periods. If the Company determines that the reasonable assurance threshold for an individual patient is met at lease inception or at a monthly lease renewal period, such determination would impact the bargain renewal period for an individual lease. The Company would first consider the lease classification issue (sales-type lease or operating lease) and then appropriately recognize or defer rental revenue over the lease term, which may include a portion of the capped rental period. To date, the Company has not deferred any amounts associated with the capped rental period. Amounts related to the capped rental period have not been material in the periods presented.
The lease term begins on the date products are shipped to patients and are recorded at amounts estimated to be received under reimbursement arrangements with third-party payors, including Medicare, private payors, and Medicaid. Due to the nature of the industry and the reimbursement environment in which the Company operates, certain estimates are required to record net revenue and accounts receivable at their net realizable values. Inherent in these estimates is the risk that they will have to be revised or updated as additional information becomes available. Specifically, the complexity of many third-party billing arrangements and the uncertainty of reimbursement amounts for certain services from certain payors may result in adjustments to amounts originally recorded. Such adjustments are typically identified and recorded at the point of cash application, claim denial or account review. Accounts receivable are reduced by an allowance for doubtful accounts which provides for those accounts from which payment is not expected to be received although product was delivered and revenue was earned. Upon determination that an account is uncollectible, it is written-off and charged to the allowance. Amounts billed but not earned due to the timing of the billing cycle are deferred and recognized in income on a straight-line basis over the monthly billing period. For example, if the first day of the billing period does not fall on the first of the month, then a portion of the monthly billing period will fall in the subsequent month and the related revenue and cost would be deferred based on the service days in the following month.
Rental revenue is recognized as earned, less estimated adjustments. Revenue not billed at the end of the period is reviewed for the likelihood of collections and accrued. The rental revenue stream is not guaranteed and payment will cease if the patient no longer needs oxygen or returns the equipment. Revenue recognized is at full estimated allowable amounts; transfers to secondary insurances or patient responsibility have no net effect on revenue. Rental revenue is earned for that month if the patient is on service on the first day of the 30-day period commencing on the recurring date of service for a particular claim, regardless if there is a change in condition or death after that date.
Included in rental revenue are unbilled amounts for which the revenue recognition criteria had been met as of period-end but were not yet billed to the payor. The estimate of unbilled rental revenue is based on historical trends and estimates of future collectability. In addition, the Company estimates potential future adjustments and write-offs of these unbilled amounts and includes these estimates in the allowance for adjustments and write-offs of rental revenue which is netted against gross receivables.
Fair value of financial instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses, debt and warrants. The carrying values of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, accounts receivable and accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair values based on the short-term nature of these financial instruments.
The fair value of the Company’s debt approximates carrying value based on the Company’s current incremental borrowing rate for similar types of borrowing arrangements. Imputed interest associated with the Company’s non-interest bearing debt is insignificant and has been appropriately recognized in the respective periods.
Fair value accounting
ASC 820—Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, creates a single definition of fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in GAAP and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC 820 emphasizes that fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement, and states that a fair value measurement should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. Assets and liabilities adjusted to fair value in the balance sheet are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair value. Level inputs, as defined by ASC 820, are as follows:
The Company obtained the fair value of its available-for-sale securities, which are not in active markets, from a third-party professional pricing service using quoted market prices for identical or comparable instruments, rather than direct observations of quoted prices in active markets. The Company's professional pricing service gathers observable inputs for all of its fixed income securities from a variety of industry data providers (e.g., large custodial institutions) and other third-party sources. Once the observable inputs are gathered, all data points are considered and the fair value is determined. The Company validates the quoted market prices provided by its primary pricing service by comparing their assessment of the fair values against the fair values provided by its investment managers. The Company's investment managers use similar techniques to its professional pricing service to derive pricing as described above. As all significant inputs were observable, derived from observable information in the marketplace or supported by observable levels at which transactions are executed in the marketplace, the Company has classified its available-for-sale securities within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.
The following table summarizes fair value measurements by level for the assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis:
The Company considers all short-term highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents primarily consist of funds held in money market accounts, which were $10,100 and $42,300 as of June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively. Cash equivalents are recorded at cost plus accrued interest, which approximates fair value. Certificates of deposit are included in cash equivalents and short-term investments based on the maturity date of the security.
The Company considers investments with maturities greater than three months, but less than one year, to be short-term investments. Investments that have maturities of more than one year are classified as long-term investments. Investments are classified as available-for-sale and are reported at fair value with unrealized gains or losses, if any, reported, net of tax, in accumulated other comprehensive income. The fair value measurement of the investments had an immaterial impact on Other Comprehensive Income. The Company does not have any other items which would be classified within Other Comprehensive Income. Therefore, there would be no change between the reported Net Income and Other Comprehensive Income due to the immateriality of the unrealized gains or losses associated with investments. The cost of investments sold is based on the specific identification method, and all income generated and realized gains or losses from investments are recorded to interest and other income (expense), net.
The Company reviews its investments to identify and evaluate investments that have an indication of possible impairment. Factors considered in determining whether a loss is temporary include the length of time and extent to which fair value has been less than the cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the investee, and the Company's intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value. Credit losses and other-than-temporary impairments are declines in fair value that are not expected to recover and are charged to interest and other income (expense), net.
Accounts receivable and allowance for bad debts, returns, and adjustments
Accounts receivable are customer obligations due under normal sales and rental terms. The Company performs credit evaluations of the customers’ financial condition and generally does not require collateral. The allowance for doubtful accounts is maintained at a level that, in management’s opinion, is adequate to absorb potential losses related to accounts receivable and is based upon the Company’s continuous evaluation of the collectability of outstanding balances. Management’s evaluation takes into consideration such factors as past bad debt experience, economic conditions and information about specific receivables. The Company’s evaluation also considers the age and composition of the outstanding amounts in determining their net realizable value.
The allowance is based on estimates, and ultimate losses may vary from current estimates. As adjustments to these estimates become necessary, they are reported in earnings in the periods that they become known. The allowance is increased by bad debt provisions charged to bad debt expense, net of recoveries, in operating expense and is reduced by direct write-offs, net of recoveries.
The Company generally does not allow returns from providers for reasons not covered under its standard warranty. Therefore, provision for sales returns applies to direct-to-consumer sales only. This reserve is calculated based on actual historical return rates under the Company’s 30-day return program and is applied to the sales revenue for direct-to-consumer sales for the last month of the quarter reported.
The Company also records an allowance for rental revenue adjustments and write-offs, which is recorded as a reduction of rental revenue and rental accounts receivable balances. These adjustments and write-offs result from contractual adjustments, audit adjustments, untimely claims filings or billings not paid due to another provider performing same or similar functions for the patient in the same period, all of which prevent billed revenue from becoming realizable. The reserve is based on historical revenue adjustments as a percentage of rental revenue billed and rental revenue unbilled during the related period.
When recording the allowance for doubtful accounts, the bad debt expense account (general and administrative expense account) is charged; when recording allowance for sales returns, the sales returns account (contra sales revenue account) is charged; and when recording the allowance for adjustments, the rental revenue adjustments account (contra rental revenue account) is charged.
As of June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, included in accounts receivable on the balance sheets were earned but unbilled receivables of $4,141 and $3,653, respectively. These balances reflect gross unbilled receivables prior to any allowances for adjustments and write-offs.
Concentration of credit risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. At times, cash account balances may be in excess of the amounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). However, management believes the risk of loss to be minimal. The Company performs periodic evaluations of the relative credit standing of these institutions and has not experienced any losses on its cash and cash equivalents to date.
Concentration of customers and vendors
The Company sells its products to home medical equipment providers, distributors, and resellers in the United States and in foreign countries on a credit basis. The Company sells its products to consumers on a prepayment basis. No single customer represented more than 10% of the Company’s total revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014. No single customer represented more than 10% of the Company’s total accounts receivable balance as of June 30, 2015, or as of December 31, 2014.
The Company also rents products directly to consumers for insurance reimbursement, which resulted in a customer concentration relating to Medicare’s service reimbursement programs. Medicare’s service reimbursement programs accounted for 73.1% and 71.7% of rental revenue for the three months ended June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014, respectively, and based on total revenue were 19.3% and 23.4% for the three months ended June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014, respectively. Medicare’s service reimbursement programs accounted for 72.9% and 72.1% of rental revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014, respectively, and based on total revenue were 21.0% and 25.0% for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014, respectively. Accounts receivable balances relating to Medicare’s service reimbursement programs amounted to $7,488 or 30.2% of total accounts receivable as of June 30, 2015 as compared to $4,875, or 25.2% of total accounts receivable as of December 31, 2014.
The Company currently purchases raw materials from a limited number of vendors, which resulted in a concentration of three major vendors. The three major vendors supply the Company with raw materials used to manufacture the Company’s products. For the six months ended June 30, 2015, the Company’s three major vendors accounted for 21.6%, 17.7%, and 9.6%, respectively, of total raw material purchases. For the six months ended June 30, 2014, the Company’s three major vendors accounted for 22.6%, 18.1% and 8.5%, respectively, of total raw material purchases.
A portion of revenue is earned from sales outside the United States. Approximately 70% of the non-U.S. revenue for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2015 was invoiced in euros. We did not begin to invoice in euros until the fourth quarter of 2014. A breakdown of the Company’s revenue from U.S. and non-U.S. sources for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014 is as follows:
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using a standard cost method, including material, labor and manufacturing overhead, whereby the standard costs are updated at least quarterly to reflect approximate actual costs using the first-in, first out (FIFO) method and market represents the lower of replacement cost or estimated net realizable value. The Company records adjustments at least quarterly to inventory for potentially excess, obsolete, slow-moving or impaired items. Inventories consist of the following:
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation and amortization are calculated using the straight-line method over the assets’ estimated useful lives as follows:
Expenditures for additions, improvements and replacements are capitalized and depreciated to a salvage value of zero. Repair and maintenance costs are included in cost of revenue on the Statements of Operations. Repair and maintenance expense, which includes labor, parts and freight for rental equipment was $642 and $400 for the three months ended June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014, respectively, and $1,212 and $790 for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014, respectively.
Included within property and equipment is construction in process relating to the design and engineering of tooling, jigs and other machinery. In addition, this item also includes computer software that has been purchased, but has not completed the final configuration process for implementation into the Company’s systems. These items have not been placed in service; therefore, no depreciation and amortization has been recognized in respective periods.
Depreciation and amortization expense related to property and equipment and rental equipment is summarized below for the three months ended June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014, respectively, and for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and June 30, 2014, respectively.
Property and equipment and rental equipment with associated accumulated depreciation is summarized below for June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740—Income Taxes. Under ASC 740, income taxes are recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current period and deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the future tax consequences of transactions that have been recognized in the Company’s financial statements or tax returns. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax asset will not be realized.
The Company accounts for uncertainties in income tax in accordance with ASC 740-10—Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes. ASC 740-10 prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. This accounting standard also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition.
The Company recognizes interest and penalties on taxes, if any, within operations as income tax expense. No significant interest or penalties were recognized during the periods presented.
The Company operates in multiple states. The statute of limitations has expired for all tax years prior to 2011 for federal and 2010 to 2011 for various state tax purposes. However, the net operating loss generated on the federal and state tax returns in prior years may be subject to adjustments by the federal and state tax authorities.
Income tax expense was $1,855 and $2,701, an effective tax rate of 34.9% and 34.9%, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, respectively, compared to $1,490 and $2,067, an effective tax rate of 39.5% and 39.4%, for the comparable periods ended June 30, 2014, respectively. Variations in the tax rate year-over-year were primarily due to a decrease in permanent tax differences related to the domestic production activities deduction and the California research and development tax credit.
Accounting for stock-based compensation
The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, which establishes accounting for share-based awards, exchanged for employee services and requires companies to expense the estimated fair value of these awards over the requisite employee service period. Stock–based compensation cost is determined at the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The value of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the employee’s requisite service period.
As part of the provisions of ASC 718, the Company is required to estimate potential forfeitures of stock grants and adjust compensation cost recorded accordingly. The estimate of forfeitures will be adjusted over the requisite service period to the extent that actual forfeitures differ, or are expected to differ, from such estimates. Changes in estimated forfeitures will be recognized through a cumulative catch-up adjustment in the period of change and will also impact the amount of stock compensation expense to be recognized in future periods.
The Company operates in only one business segment – manufacturing, sales, rental and marketing of respiratory products.
Earnings per share
Earnings per share (EPS) is computed in accordance with ASC 260, Earnings per Share, and is calculated using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during each period. Diluted EPS assumes the conversion, exercise or issuance of all potential common stock equivalents (which can include dilution of outstanding stock options and common stock warrants) unless the effect is to reduce a loss or increase the income per share. For purposes of this calculation, common stock subject to repurchase by the Company, options and warrants are considered to be common stock equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share when their effect is dilutive.
The shares used to compute basic and diluted net income per share represent the weighted-average common shares outstanding, reduced by the weighted-average unvested common shares subject to repurchase.
The computation of EPS is as follows:
The computations of diluted net income attributable to common stockholders exclude common stock options which were anti-dilutive for the three months and six months ended June 30, 2015.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef