Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of significant accounting policies||
2. Summary of significant accounting policies
Basis of presentation
The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP).
The preparation of the Company’s financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the report amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Management bases these estimates and assumptions upon historical experience, existing and known circumstances, authoritative accounting pronouncements and other factors that management believes to be reasonable. Significant areas requiring the use of management estimates relate to revenue recognition, inventory and rental asset valuations and write-downs, accounts receivable allowances for bad debts, returns and adjustments, warranty expense, stock compensation expense, depreciation and amortization, income tax provision and uncertain tax positions, and fair value of financial instruments. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
The Company generates revenue primarily from sales and rentals of its products. The Company’s products consist of its proprietary line of oxygen concentrators and related accessories. Other revenue, which is included in sales revenue on the Statements of Comprehensive Income, comes from service contracts, extended warranty contracts and freight revenue for product shipments.
Revenue from product sales is recognized when all of the following criteria are met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; (3) the price to the customer is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. Revenue from product sales is generally recognized upon shipment of the product, but is deferred if risk of loss and ownership has not yet transferred to the customer. Provisions for estimated returns are made at the time revenue is recognized. Provisions for standard warranty obligations, which are included in cost of sales revenue on the Statements of Comprehensive Income, are also provided for at the time revenue is recognized.
Revenue from the sale of the Company’s services is recognized when no significant obligations remain undelivered and collection of the receivables is reasonably assured. The Company offers extended service contracts on its Inogen One concentrator line for periods ranging from 12 to 24 months after the end of the standard warranty period. Revenue from these extended service contracts is recognized in income on a straight-line basis over the contract period. Other revenue from sale of replacement parts and non-warranty repair services is recognized when product is shipped to customers.
Accruals for estimated standard warranty expenses are made at the time that the associated revenue is recognized. The provisions for estimated returns and warranty obligations are made based on known claims and estimates of additional returns and warranty obligations based on historical data and future expectations. The Company’s accrued warranty liability was $3,480 and $1,973 for future warranty costs as of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, respectively.
The Company also offers a lifetime warranty for direct-to-consumer sales of its portable concentrators. For a fixed price, the Company agrees to provide a fully functional oxygen concentrator for the remaining life of the patient. Lifetime warranties are only offered to patients upon the initial sale of portable oxygen concentrators by the Company and are non-transferable. Product sales with lifetime warranties are considered to be multiple element arrangements within the scope of the Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 605-25—Revenue Recognition-Multiple-Element Arrangements.
There are two deliverables when a product that includes a lifetime warranty is sold. The first deliverable is the oxygen concentrator equipment which comes with a standard warranty of three years. The second deliverable is the lifetime warranty that provides for a functional oxygen concentrator for the remaining lifetime of the patient. These two deliverables qualify as separate units of accounting.
The revenue is allocated to the two deliverables on a relative selling price method. The Company has vendor-specific objective evidence of the selling price for its equipment. To determine the selling price of the lifetime warranty, the Company uses its best estimate of the selling price for that deliverable as the lifetime warranty is neither separately priced nor is the selling price available through third-party evidence. To calculate the selling price associated with the lifetime warranties, management considered the profit margins of the overall business, the average estimated cost of lifetime warranties and the price of extended warranties. A significant estimate used to calculate the price and expense of lifetime warranties is the average life expectancy of patients. Based on clinical studies, the Company estimates that 60% of its oxygen therapy patients will succumb to their disease within three years of initial diagnosis. Given the approximate mortality rate of 20% per year, the Company estimates on average all patients will succumb to their disease within five years of initial diagnosis. The Company has taken into consideration that when patients decide to buy an Inogen portable oxygen concentrator with a lifetime warranty, they typically have already been on oxygen for a period of time, which can have a large impact on their life expectancy from the time the Company’s product is deployed.
After applying the relative selling price method, revenue from equipment sales is recognized when all other revenue recognition criteria for product sales are met. Lifetime warranty revenue is recognized using the straight-line method during the fourth and fifth year after the delivery of the equipment which is the estimated usage period of the contract based on the average patient life expectancy.
For certain business-to-business sales, the Company offers an extended warranty from our standard 3-year warranty to a 5-year total warranty, for a fixed price. Product sales with 5-year warranties are considered to be multiple element arrangements within the scope of ASC 605-25 and the additional service component is broken out from the product sales and deferred and recognized in years four and five to correspond with the service period.
Shipping and handling costs for sold products and rental assets shipped to the Company’s customers are included on the Statements of Comprehensive Income as part of cost of sales revenue and cost of rental revenue, respectively.
Revenue from the sale of former rental assets is generally recognized upon shipment, but is deferred if risk of loss and ownership has not yet transferred to the customer; when collectability is reasonably assured; and other revenue recognition criteria are met. When a rental unit is sold, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from their respective accounts, and any gains or losses are included in general and administrative expense on the Statements of Comprehensive Income.
The Company recognizes equipment rental revenue over the non-cancelable lease term, which is one month, less estimated adjustments, in accordance with ASC 840—Leases. The Company has separate contracts with each patient that are not subject to a master lease agreement with any third-party payor. The Company evaluates the individual lease contracts at lease inception and the start of each monthly renewal period to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the bargain renewal option associated with the potential capped free rental period would be exercised. Historically, the exercise of such bargain renewal option is not reasonably assured at lease inception and most subsequent monthly lease renewal periods. If the Company determines that the reasonable assurance threshold for an individual patient is met at lease inception or at a monthly lease renewal period, such determination would impact the bargain renewal period for an individual lease. The Company would first consider the lease classification issue (sales-type lease or operating lease) and then appropriately recognize or defer rental revenue over the lease term, which may include a portion of the capped rental period. The Company deferred $0 associated with the capped rental period as of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015.
The lease term begins on the date products are shipped to patients and are recorded at amounts estimated to be received under reimbursement arrangements with third-party payors, including Medicare, private payors, and Medicaid. Due to the nature of the industry and the reimbursement environment in which the Company operates, certain estimates are required to record net revenue and accounts receivable at their net realizable values. Inherent in these estimates is the risk that they will have to be revised or updated as additional information becomes available. Specifically, the complexity of many third-party billing arrangements and the uncertainty of reimbursement amounts for certain services from certain payors may result in adjustments to amounts originally recorded. Such adjustments are typically identified and recorded at the point of cash application, claim denial or account review. The Company adjusts revenue for historical trends on revenue adjustments due to timely filings, deaths, hospice, and other types of analyzable adjustments on a monthly basis. Accounts receivable are reduced by an allowance for doubtful accounts which provides for those accounts from which payment is not expected to be received although product was delivered and revenue was earned. The determination that an account is uncollectible and the ultimate write-off of that account occurs once collection is considered to be highly unlikely, and it is written-off and charged to the allowance at that time. Amounts billed but not earned due to the timing of the billing cycle are deferred and recognized in income on a straight-line basis over the monthly billing period. For example, if the first day of the billing period does not fall on the first of the month, then a portion of the monthly billing period will fall in the subsequent month and the related revenue and cost would be deferred based on the service days in the following month.
Rental revenue is recognized as earned, less estimated adjustments. Revenue not billed at the end of the period is reviewed for the likelihood of collections and accrued. The rental revenue stream is not guaranteed and payment will cease if the patient no longer needs oxygen or returns the equipment. Revenue recognized is at full estimated allowable amounts; transfers to secondary insurances or patient responsibility have no net effect on revenue. Rental revenue is earned for that entire month if the patient is on service on the first day of the 30-day period commencing on the recurring date of service for a particular claim, regardless if there is a change in condition or death after that date.
Included in rental revenue are unbilled amounts for which the revenue recognition criteria had been met as of period-end but were not yet billed to the payor. The estimate of net unbilled rental revenue recognized is based on historical trends and estimates of future collectability. In addition, the Company estimates potential future adjustments and write-offs of these unbilled amounts and includes these estimates in the allowance for adjustments and write-offs of rental revenue which is netted against gross receivables.
Fair value of financial instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses, debt and warrants. The carrying values of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable and accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair values based on the short-term nature of these financial instruments.
The fair value of the Company’s debt approximated carrying value based on the Company’s current incremental borrowing rate for similar types of borrowing arrangements. Imputed interest associated with the Company’s non-interest bearing debt was insignificant and was appropriately recognized in the respective periods.
Fair value accounting
ASC 820- Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures creates a single definition of fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in U.S. GAAP and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC 820 emphasizes that fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement, and states that a fair value measurement is to estimate the price at which an orderly transaction to sell an asset or to transfer the liability would take place between market participants at the measurement date under current market conditions. Assets and liabilities adjusted to fair value in the balance sheet are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair value. Level inputs, as defined by ASC 820, are as follows:
The Company obtained the fair value of its available-for-sale investments, which are not in active markets, from a third-party professional pricing service using quoted market prices for identical or comparable instruments, rather than direct observations of quoted prices in active markets. The Company's professional pricing service gathers observable inputs for all of its fixed income securities from a variety of industry data providers (e.g., large custodial institutions) and other third-party sources. Once the observable inputs are gathered, all data points are considered and the fair value is determined. The Company validates the quoted market prices provided by its primary pricing service by comparing their assessment of the fair values against the fair values provided by its investment managers. The Company's investment managers use similar techniques to its professional pricing service to derive pricing as described above. As all significant inputs were observable, derived from observable information in the marketplace or supported by observable levels at which transactions are executed in the marketplace, the Company has classified its available-for-sale investments within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.
The following table summarizes fair value measurements by level for the assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis for cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities:
The following table summarizes the estimated fair value of the Company’s investments in marketable securities, accounted for as available-for-sale securities and classified by the contractual maturity date of the securities:
Derivative instruments and hedging activities
The Company transacts business in foreign currencies and has international sales and expenses denominated in foreign currencies, subjecting the Company to foreign currency risk. The Company has entered into foreign currency forward contracts, generally with maturities of twelve months or less, to reduce the volatility of cash flows primarily related to forecasted revenue denominated in certain foreign currencies. These contracts allow the Company to sell Euros in exchange for U.S. dollars at specified contract rates. Forward contracts are used to hedge forecasted sales over specific months. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts designed as cash flow hedges are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) income within stockholders’ equity, and are recognized in the statements of comprehensive income during the period which approximates the time the corresponding sales occur. The Company may also enter into foreign exchange contracts that are not designated as hedging instruments for financial accounting purposes. These contracts are generally entered into to offset the gains and losses on certain asset and liability balances until the expected time of repayment. Accordingly, any gains or losses resulting from changes in the fair value of the non-designated contracts are reported in other expense, net in the statements of comprehensive income. The gains and losses on these contracts generally offset the gains and losses associated with the underlying foreign currency-denominated balances, which are also reported in other income expense, net.
The Company records the assets or liabilities associated with derivative instruments and hedging activities at fair value based on Level 2 inputs in other current assets or other current liabilities, respectively, in the balance sheet. The Company had a receivable of $15 and a payable of $24 as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The Company classifies the foreign currency derivative instruments within Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy as the valuation inputs are based on quoted prices and market observable data of whether it is designated and qualifies for hedge accounting.
The Company documents the hedging relationship and its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge, the hedging instrument, the hedged transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged, how the hedging instrument’s effectiveness in offsetting the hedged risk will be assessed prospectively and retrospectively, and a description of the method used to measure ineffectiveness. The Company assesses hedge effectiveness and ineffectiveness at a minimum quarterly, but may assess it monthly. For derivative instruments that are designed and qualify as part of a cash flow hedging relationship, the effective portion of the gain or loss on the derivative is reported in other comprehensive income (loss) and reclassified into earnings in the same periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. Gains and losses on the derivative representing either hedge ineffectiveness or hedge components excluded from the assessment of effectiveness are recognized in current period earnings.
The Company will discontinue hedge accounting prospectively when it determines that the derivative is no longer effective in offsetting cash flows attributable to the hedge risk. The cash flow hedge is de-designated because a forecasted transaction is not probable of occurring, or management determines to remove the designation of the cash flow hedge. In all situations in which hedge accounting is discontinued and the derivative remains outstanding, the Company continues to carry the derivative at its fair value on the balance sheet and recognizes any subsequent changes in the fair value in earnings. When it is probable that a forecasted transaction will not occur, the Company will discontinue hedge accounting and recognize immediately in earnings gains and losses that were accumulated in other comprehensive income related to the hedging relationship.
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
The components of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax, were as follows:
Comprehensive income (loss) is the total net earnings and all other non-owner changes in equity. Except for net income and unrealized gains and losses on cash flow hedges and available-for-sale investments, the Company does not have any transactions or other economic events that qualify as comprehensive income (loss).
Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities
The Company considers all short-term highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are recorded at cost plus accrued interest, which is considered adjusted cost, and approximates fair value. Certificates of deposit are included in cash equivalents and marketable securities based on the maturity date of the security. Short-term investments are included in marketable securities in the current period presentation.
The Company considers investments with maturities greater than three months, but less than one year, to be marketable securities. Investments are classified as available-for-sale and are reported at fair value with unrealized gains or losses, if any, reported, net of tax, in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). All income generated and realized gains or losses from investments are recorded to other income (expense), net.
The Company reviews its investments to identify and evaluate investments that have an indication of possible impairment. Factors considered in determining whether a loss is temporary include the length of time and extent to which fair value has been less than the cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the investee, and the Company's intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value. Credit losses and other-than-temporary impairments are declines in fair value that are not expected to recover and are charged to other income (expense), net. Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities consist of the following:
Accounts receivable and allowance for bad debts, returns, and adjustments
Accounts receivable are customer obligations due under normal sales and rental terms. The Company performs credit evaluations of the customers’ financial condition and generally does not require collateral. The allowance for doubtful accounts is maintained at a level that, in management’s opinion, is adequate to absorb potential losses related to accounts receivable and is based upon the Company’s continuous evaluation of the collectability of outstanding balances. Management’s evaluation takes into consideration such factors as past bad debt experience, economic conditions and information about specific receivables. The Company’s evaluation also considers the age and composition of the outstanding amounts in determining their net realizable value.
The allowance for doubtful accounts is based on estimates, and ultimate losses may vary from current estimates. As adjustments to these estimates become necessary, they are reported in earnings in the periods in which they become known. This allowance is increased by bad debt provisions charged to bad debt expense, net of recoveries, in operating expense and is reduced by direct write-offs.
The Company generally does not allow returns from providers for reasons not covered under its standard warranty. Therefore, provision for sales returns applies primarily to direct-to-consumer sales. This reserve is calculated based on actual historical return rates under the Company’s 30-day return program and is applied to the related sales revenue for the last month of the quarter reported.
The Company also records an allowance for rental revenue adjustments which is recorded as a reduction of rental revenue and net rental accounts receivable balances. These adjustments result from contractual adjustments, audit adjustments, untimely claims filings, or billings not paid due to another provider performing same or similar functions for the patient in the same period, all of which prevent billed revenue from becoming realizable. The reserve is based on historical revenue adjustments as a percentage of rental revenue billed and unbilled during the related period.
When recording the allowance for doubtful accounts, the bad debt expense account (general and administrative expense account) is charged; when recording allowance for sales returns, the sales returns account (contra sales revenue account) is charged; and when recording the allowance for rental reserve adjustments, the rental revenue adjustments account (contra rental revenue account) is charged.
As of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, included in accounts receivable on the balance sheets were earned but unbilled receivables of $7,484 and $5,155, respectively. These balances reflect gross unbilled receivables prior to any allowances for adjustments and write-offs. The Company consistently applies its allowance estimation methodology from period-to-period. The Company’s best estimate is made on an accrual basis and adjusted in future periods as required. Any adjustments to the prior period estimates are included in the current period. As additional information becomes known, the Company adjusts its assumptions accordingly to change its estimate of the allowance. For the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company had a $3,589 increase in the provision for bad debt and revenue adjustments related to prior years.
Gross accounts receivable balance concentrations by major category as of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 were as follows:
Net accounts receivable (gross accounts receivable net of allowances) balance concentrations by major category as of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 were as follows:
The following table sets forth the percentage breakdown of the Company’s net accounts receivable (gross accounts receivable net of allowances) by aging category by invoice due date as of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015.
The following table sets forth the accounts receivable allowances as of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015:
Concentration of credit risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist principally of cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments and accounts receivable. At times, cash account balances may be in excess of the amounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). However, management believes the risk of loss to be minimal. The Company performs periodic evaluations of the relative credit standing of these institutions and has not experienced any losses on its cash and cash equivalents to date. The Company has also entered into hedging relationships with a single counterparty to offset the forecasted Euro based revenues. The credit risk has been reduced due to a net settlement arrangement whereby the Company is allowed to net settle transactions with a single net amount payable by one party to the other.
Concentration of customers and vendors
The Company primarily sells its products to traditional home medical equipment providers, distributors, and resellers in the United States and in foreign countries on a credit basis. The Company primarily sells its products to consumers on a prepayment basis. One single customer represented more than 10% of the Company’s total revenue for 2016, and no single customer represented more than 10% of the Company’s total revenue for 2015 and 2014. One single customer with an accounts receivable balance of $9,791 , represented more than 10% of the Company’s total net accounts receivable balance as of December 31, 2016, and no single customer represented more than 10% of the Company’s total net accounts receivable balance as of December 31, 2015.
The Company also rents products directly to consumers for insurance reimbursement, which resulted in a customer concentration relating to Medicare’s service reimbursement programs. Medicare’s service reimbursement programs accounted for 72.6%, 73.7% and 75.6% of rental revenue in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and based on total revenue were 12.4%, 21.0% and 26.5% for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Accounts receivable balances relating to Medicare’s service reimbursement programs (including held and unbilled, net of allowances) amounted to $7,208 or 23.4% of total net accounts receivable as of December 31, 2016 as compared to $7,441 or 37.4% of total net accounts receivable as of December 31, 2015.
The Company currently purchases raw materials from a limited number of vendors, which resulted in a concentration of three major vendors. The three major vendors supply the Company with raw materials used to manufacture the Company’s products. For 2016, the Company’s three major vendors accounted for 21.0%, 15.6% and 8.6%, respectively, of total raw material purchases. For 2015, the Company’s three major vendors accounted for 21.6%, 17.6% and 9.3%, respectively, of total raw material purchases.
A portion of revenue is earned from sales outside the United States. Approximately 70.6% of the non-U.S. revenue for 2016 were invoiced in Euros. A breakdown of the Company’s revenue from U.S. and non-U.S. sources for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 is as follows:
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using a standard cost method, including material, labor and manufacturing overhead, whereby the standard costs are updated at least quarterly to reflect approximate actual costs using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method and market represents the lower of replacement cost or estimated net realizable value. The Company records adjustments at least quarterly to inventory for potentially excess, obsolete, slow-moving or impaired items. The Company recorded noncurrent inventory related to inventories that are expected to be realized or consumed after one year of $314 and $0 as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, classified within other assets. During the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, $1,454 and $1,449, respectively, of inventory was transferred to rental equipment and was included in the total amount of rental equipment produced and purchased on the statement of cash flows. Inventories consist of the following:
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation and amortization are calculated using the straight-line method over the assets’ estimated useful lives as follows:
Expenditures for additions, improvements and replacements are capitalized and depreciated to a salvage value of $0. Repair and maintenance costs on rental equipment are included in cost of rental revenue on the statements of comprehensive income. Repair and maintenance expense, which includes labor, parts and freight, for rental equipment was $2,464, $2,520 and $1,628 for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Included within property and equipment is construction in process, primarily related to the design and engineering of tooling, jigs and other machinery. In addition, this item also includes computer software or development costs that have been purchased, but have not completed the final configuration process for implementation into the Company’s systems. These items have not been placed in service; therefore, no depreciation or amortization was recognized for these items in the respective periods.
Depreciation and amortization expense related to property and equipment and rental equipment are summarized below for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Property and equipment and rental equipment with associated accumulated depreciation is summarized below as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
The Company accounts for the impairment and disposition of long-lived assets in accordance with ASC 360-Property, Plant, and Equipment. In accordance with ASC 360, long-lived assets to be held are reviewed for events or changes in circumstances that indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable. The Company periodically reviews the carrying value of long-lived assets to determine whether or not impairment to such value has occurred. No impairments were recorded as of December 31, 2016 and 2015.
We are involved in various lawsuits, claims, investigations, and proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of business. We record a liability when we believe that it is both probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Significant judgment is required to determine both probability and the estimated amount. We review at least quarterly and adjust accordingly to reflect the impact of negotiations, settlements, rulings, advice of legal counsel, and updated information. At this time, we have no reserve related to lawsuits, claims, investigations and proceedings.
The Company’s operating leases for its office facilities in California and Texas include a rent abatement period and scheduled rent increases. The Company has accounted for the leases to provide straight-line charges to operations over the life of the leases.
Research and development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
Advertising costs, which approximated $6,215, $4,686 and $3,290 during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, are expensed as incurred, excluding the production costs of direct response commercials. Advertising costs are included in sales and marketing expense in the accompanying Statements of Comprehensive Income.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740—Income Taxes. Under ASC 740, income taxes are recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current period and deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the future tax consequences of transactions that have been recognized in the Company’s financial statements or tax returns. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax asset will not be realized.
The Company accounts for uncertainties in income tax in accordance with ASC 740-10—Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes. ASC 740-10 prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. This accounting standard also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition.
The Company recognizes interest and penalties on taxes, if any, within its income tax provision. No significant interest or penalties were recognized during the periods presented.
Accounting for stock-based compensation
The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718-Compensation—Stock Compensation, which establishes accounting for share-based awards, exchanged for employee services and requires companies to expense the estimated fair value of these awards over the requisite employee service period. Stock–based compensation cost is determined at the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The value of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the employee’s requisite service period.
As part of the provisions of ASC 718, the Company is required to estimate potential forfeitures of stock grants and adjust compensation cost recorded accordingly. The estimate of forfeitures will be adjusted over the requisite service period to the extent that actual forfeitures differ, or are expected to differ, from such estimates. Changes in estimated forfeitures will be recognized through a cumulative catch-up adjustment in the period of change and will also impact the amount of stock compensation expense to be recognized in future periods.
The Company operates and reports in only one operating and reportable segment – development, manufacturing, marketing, sales, and rental of respiratory products.
Earnings per share
Earnings per share (EPS) is computed in accordance with ASC 260-Earnings per Share and is calculated using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during each period. Diluted EPS assumes the conversion, exercise or issuance of all potential common stock equivalents (which can include dilution of outstanding stock options and common stock warrants) unless the effect is to reduce a loss or increase the income per share. For purposes of this calculation, common stock subject to repurchase by the Company, options and warrants are considered to be common stock equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share when their effect is dilutive.
Basic earnings per share is calculated using the Company’s weighted-average outstanding common shares. Diluted earnings per share is calculated using the Company’s weighted-average outstanding common shares including the dilutive effect of stock awards as determined under the treasury stock method.
The computation of EPS is as follows:
The computations of diluted net income attributable to common stockholders exclude common stock options, which were anti-dilutive for the periods ended December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015.
Recent accounting pronouncements
Income taxes pronouncement:
In November 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes, which simplifies the presentation of deferred income taxes. This ASU requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as noncurrent in a statement of financial position. The Company early adopted ASU No. 2015-17 effective December 31, 2015 on a prospective basis. Adoption of this ASU resulted in a reclassification of the Company’s net current deferred tax asset to the net noncurrent deferred tax asset in the Company’s balance sheet as of December 31, 2015. No prior periods were retrospectively adjusted.
Revenue recognition pronouncements:
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. The core principle of ASU No. 2014-09 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services. ASU No. 2014-09 defines a five-step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than are required under existing U.S. GAAP.
In August 2015, the FASB decided to delay the effective date of ASU No. 2014-09 by one year. The FASB also agreed to allow entities to choose to adopt the standard as of the original effective date. As such, the updated standard will be effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the Company’s pending adoption of ASU No. 2014-09 on the Company’s financial statements and has not yet determined the method by which the Company will adopt the standard.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-08, Revenue with Contracts with Customers: Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus net), which is an amendment to ASU No. 2014-09 that improved the operability and understandability of implementation guidance versus agent considerations by clarifying the determination of principal versus agent. The implementation guidelines follow ASU No. 2014-09.
In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-10, Revenue with Contracts with Customers: Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing, which is an amendment to ASU No. 2014-09 that clarifies the aspects of identifying performance obligations and the licensing implementing guidance, while retaining the related principles within those areas. The implementation guidelines follow ASU No. 2014-09.
In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-12, Revenue with Contracts with Customers: Narrow-scope Improvements and Practical Expedients, which is an amendment to ASU No. 2014-09 that clarifies the objective of the collectability criterion, to allow entities to exclude amounts collected from customers from all sales taxes from the transaction price, to specify the measurement date for noncash consideration is contract inception, variable consideration guidance applies only to variability resulting from reasons other than the form of the consideration, and clarification on contract modifications at transition. The implementation guidelines follow ASU No. 2014-09.
In December 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09 and No. 2016-20, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which is an amendment to ASU No. 2014-09 that clarify certain items within the amendment. The implementation guidelines follow ASU No. 2014-09.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory. The ASU requires entities to measure most inventory “at the lower of cost and net realizable value” thereby simplifying the current guidance under which an entity must measure inventory at the lower of cost or market. The ASU is effective prospectively for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within annual periods. Early application is permitted and should be applied prospectively. The adoption of ASU No. 2015-11 is not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.
On February 25, 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The new guidance will require organizations that lease assets—referred to as “lessees”—to recognize on the balance sheet the assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by those leases with lease terms of more than twelve months. This will increase the reported assets and liabilities – in some cases very significantly. ASU No. 2016-02 will take effect for public companies for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption will be permitted for all entities. The Company is currently evaluating the effect of the new lease recognition guidance and has not yet determined the impact on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.
Stock compensation pronouncement:
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation, which simplifies the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. The ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. Certain amendments related to ASU No. 2016-09 are implemented with changes recognized on a modified retrospective transition method, retrospectively as well as prospectively. Early application is permitted for any entity in any interim or annual period. If early adoption is elected during an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period.
The Company elected to early adopt ASU 2016-09 in the fourth quarter of 2016, which requires any adjustments to be recorded as of the beginning of fiscal 2016. As a result, the Company used the modified retrospective method to record an adjustment of $12,226 to deferred tax assets and accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2016, and an adjustment to the previously reported unaudited first, second, and third quarter 2016 provision for income taxes of approximately $156, $2,350, and $1,791, respectively, for the recognition of excess tax benefits in the provision for income taxes rather than additional paid-in capital. The adoption of this ASU impacted our previously reported unaudited quarterly results during fiscal year 2016 as follows:
Additional amendments to this ASU related to income taxes and minimum statutory withholding tax requirements had no impact to accumulated deficit, where the cumulative effect of these changes is required to be recorded. The Company also elected to continue to estimate forfeitures at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The presentation requirements for cash flows related to employee taxes paid for withheld shares had no impact to any of the periods presented in our consolidated cash flows as such cash flows will be presented as a financing activity prospectively.
Financial instruments pronouncement:
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Accounting for Credit Losses (Topic 326). The new standard requires the use of an “expected loss” model on certain types of financial instruments. The standard also amends the impairment model for available-for-sale debt securities and requires estimated credit losses to be recorded as allowances instead of reductions to amortized cost of the securities. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those years, with early adoption permitted. The Company is evaluating the new guidance but does not expect it to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statement presentation or results.
Statement of cash flows pronouncement:
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230). The standard is intended to reduce diversity in practice in how certain transactions are classified in the statement of cash flows. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those years, with early adoption permitted. The Company is evaluating the new guidance but does not expect it to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statement presentation or results.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef